Dental Malocclusion : Causes & Types


Disturbance of the location of the teeth and the clamping line becomes a problem that disturbs both children and their parents. Bite (occlusion) is the location and closing of the dentition of the lower and upper malocclusion types

A typical bite in a person begins to form after birth.The process of its development is divided into several stages. If dislocation occurs at a particular stage, an incorrect bite develops to some extent.

In jaw strain, the lower or upper jaw is displaced, protruding forward or backward.Often there are situations when the position of individual teeth is disturbed.

Causes & Types of Malocclusion

The displacement of several teeth causes the appearance of an additional dentition.

Classification of abnormal occlusion

1. Mesial Bite

For pathology is characterized by the presence of an overly advanced and developed lower jaw covering the upper teeth. The main factors affecting the development of mesial occlusion:

  • Slowed change of milk teeth;
  • Shortened bridle in tongue;
  • bad habits;
  • Trauma during childbirth;
  • Hereditary factor;
  • Premature replacement of infant teeth;
  • Rickets;
  • chronic ENT diseases.

2.Open Bite

Not the closing of the teeth between the jaws refers to the open pathology of the occlusion.

The cause of this form lies in heredity, endured rickets or endocrine diseases.

3. Distal Bite

A characteristic feature of such a vertical occlusion is a massive and advanced upper jaw. The dental lower row with this pathology is underdeveloped, therefore at the moment of closing of teeth, the jaw from above covers the bottom row of teeth.

Causes of the disease:

  • Predisposition;
  • Impaired posture;
  • Birth injury;
  • Lack of trace elements in the body, such as calcium and fluoride;
  • Feeding with artificial mixtures, prolonged sucking of bottles and nipples;
  • Injury to the jaw.

4. Cross Bite

The deviation of the size and structure of the teeth from the norm leads to the appearance of a cross anomaly.

This type of pathology is accompanied by facial asymmetry, various defects in spoken language, difficulties in chewing food.

The prerequisites for the appearance of a cross bite are usually of an innate form. However, the acquired pathology is found.

The main factors affecting its occurrence are:

  • Cleft palate;
  • Trauma at birth;
  • Macroglossia;
  • Hereditary conditioning;
  • Violations in the exchange of minerals;
  • Adenoids.

5. Deep Bite

In this situation, the upper jaw covers the lower teeth by almost 1/3 part.

Several reasons affect the formation of deep occlusion:

  • Breathing with the mouth;
  • Osteomyelitis of the jaw;
  • Diseases of ENT organs;
  • Violations of the facial skeleton.

If a deep bite in time can not be cured, there may be a loosening of the teeth, a speech defect will appear, an incorrect breathing will develop, and aesthetic disturbances will be visible.

6.Decreased Bite

The declining bite is a progressive process, when the incisors of the lower jaw gradually “slip” to the gingival margin, losing the normally in contact with the dental knolls of the opposing upper teeth.

Usually a bite of a declining type appears from the erasure of the teeth or in the event of their loss, when the jaws and teeth are deformed, as well as their displacement.

Treatment of abnormal occlusion involves the use of special methods in orthodontics aimed at correcting the shape of the teeth, restoring the normal range and occlusion.

When the anomaly has a pronounced shape, surgical treatment is used.

When abrasion of teeth requires prosthetics.

The key to successful cure will be an early appeal to specialists, since correction of defects should be done at the initial stage, without waiting for complications and facial asymmetry.

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